Espionage has a deep history in China. This may seem odd in a culture where Confucianism left a deep imprint on public and private life. After all, in order to be a worthy member of society, Confucius (551-479 BCE) said that one ought to aspire to be upright and genuine. Words and language ought to be carefully chosen. The Confucian gentleman had to mean what he said and respect customs and rituals. Officials were the visual embodiment of an ethical code that encouraged those with talent to live life as public servants and educators. At first sight, then, operating from the shadows with deliberate deceit seems far-flung from Confucian notions of righteousness and propriety. Yet this is only part of the story. Alongside Confucian ideals of exemplary leadership, the Chinese tradition nurtured an equally influential alternative figure: that of the commander or strategist bent on conquering one’s opponent by means of secret stratagems.
Angel Molina@aingeru074The Chinese spying game has a long history Roel Sterckx @EngelsbergIdeas #CulturadeDefensa #esINT @CatedraInt