Democratic Republic of the Congo (Wikimedia, Julien Harneis)
According to a 2015 report from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), as of January 2014 more than 11 million people around the world had been driven from their homes by armed conflict, persecution, natural disasters or other causes. Of these, more than 6 million were in the Middle East, Southern Africa and the East and the Horn of Africa, and more than 1 million in Europe.
The number of refugees in the Middle East and North Africa have nearly doubled in recent years, driven by conflicts in Syria, Iraq, Libya and other nations. As the numbers grow, displacement patterns are shifting away from camps and toward urban areas.
While millions of migrants cross borders within North Africa or the Middle East seeking safety, thousands attempt dangerous trips across the Mediterranean. In the first three months of 2015, more than 1,700 immigrants from North Africa died attempting to reach Europe. With many European nations still struggling with high unemployment rates, the perceived competition for jobs has caused tensions within European nations, even as they struggle with how to manage and assist their growing refugee populations. In the United States, 2014 saw a surge in unaccompanied minors at the U.S.-Mexico border, with more than 47,000 taken into custody between Oct. 1, 2013, and May 31, 2014.
This book is the first of a series in which RAND will explore the elements of a national strategy for the conduct of U.S. foreign policy in a fast-changing world. Here, we lay out the major choices facing the next American administration both globally and in three critical regions. The initial chapters lay out alternatives for managing the world economy and the national defense, countering international terrorism, handling conflict in the cyber domain, and dealing with climate change. Subsequent chapters examine in more detail the choices to be faced in Europe, the Middle East, and East Asia. The final section proposes broad strategic guidelines that can inform and guide these choices.
Later volumes will develop further particular aspects of such a national strategy, including national defense, alliances and partnerships, institutional reform of the American system for managing national security, climate change, surprise and the role of intelligence in reducing it, and the global economy.
Today, the United States faces no existential threat; rather, it confronts an unusually wide and diverse array of challenges.
Russia has reemerged as an aggressor state. China has become more repressive at home and more assertive abroad. Al Qaeda has spawned offshoots and imitators more powerful and more radical than itself. Climate change has advanced, and predictions of climate-related disasters have become more ominous, more imminent, and more credible. Cyberspace has emerged as a new battleground between the forces of order and disorder. Expansion of international travel makes the emergence of new communicable diseases like Ebola more dangerous. The past few years have been a reminder that stability is not the natural state of the international environment, that peace is not self-perpetuating, and that whole regions can descend suddenly into anarchy.
The United States, as the world’s most powerful nation, should continue to take the lead in sustaining and extending a rules-based international order. It should promote the development of new norms in domains where these do not yet exist, such as cyber and climate management. States are the essential building blocks in any such system. Challenges come from strong states that break the rules, and weak ones that cannot enforce them. Both of these challenges need to be addressed. A focus on defense, deterrence, and dissuasion is essential, but it is not enough. State capacity needs to keep pace with the growing capacity for disruption of individuals and groups. The most successful eras of American statecraft have been periods of construction: the birth of new institutions, the reconstruction of shattered nations, and the establishment of new norms for international behavior. The United States needs to combine its defense of existing institutions and norms with a rededication to such a positive agenda, and commit itself to providing the necessary resources.
What long-term policy issues and organizational, financial, and diplomatic challenges will confront the next president and senior U.S. officials in 2017 and beyond?
What strategic choices does the United States have in dealing with the challenges of today’s — and tomorrow’s — fast-changing world?
El dficit del Estado se situ en 26.773 millones de euros entre enero y julio en trminos de Contabilidad Nacional, lo que equivale al 2,44% del PIB, segn inform este lunes el Ministerio de Hacienda y Administraciones Pblicas.
La balanza por cuenta corriente, que mide los ingresos y pagos al exterior por intercambio de mercancas, servicios, rentas y transferencias, registr un supervit de alrededor de 500 millones de euros hasta junio, frente al dficit de 3.600 millones del mismo periodo del 2014, segn datos del Banco de Espaa.
The World According to Kissinger By Wolfgang Ischinger: With the existing world order under assault, Henry Kissinger still champions the traditional building blocks of the international system—sovereign states—even as he recognizes the rising influence of global markets and liberal values.Listen to the March/April 2015 issue – 9 hr 10 min