Relaciones Internacionales – Comunicación Internacional

La comunicación estratégica

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Some Language Basics

Strategy is a term that comes from the Greek strategia, meaning «generalship.» In the military, strategy often refers to maneuvering troops into position before the enemy is actually engaged. In this sense, strategy refers to the deployment of troops. Once the enemy has been engaged, attention shifts to tactics. Here, the employment of troops is central. Substitute «resources» for troops and the transfer of the concept to the business world begins to take form.

Strategy also refers to the means by which policy is effected, accounting for Clauswitz’ famous statement that war is the continuation of political relations via other means. Given the centuries-old military origins of strategy, it seems sensible to begin our examination of strategy with the military view. For that, there is no better source than B. H. Liddell Hart.


Developing a Plan for Communication

Strategic communication

Defense application

Main article: Propaganda

The recently approved NATO Policy on Strategic Communication defines Strategic Communication as «the coordinated and appropriate use of NATO communications activities and capabilities – Public Diplomacy, Military Public Affairs, Information Operations and Psychological Operations, as appropriate – in support of Alliance policies, operations and activities, and in order to advance NATO’s aims» (SG(2009)0794). «It is important to underline that Strategic Communication is first and foremost a process that supports and underpins all efforts to achieve the Alliance’s objectives; an enabler that guides and informs our decisions, and not an organization in itself. It is for this reason that Strategic Communication considerations should be integrated into the earliest planning phases – communication activities being a consequence of that planning» (MCM-0164-2009).

Definition of strategic communication

Strategic Communication refers to policy-making and guidance for consistent information activity within an organization and between organizations. Equivalent business management terms are: integrated (marketing) communication, organizational communication, corporate communication, institutional communication, etc. (see paragraph on ‘Commercial Application’ below).

In the U.S., Strategic Communication is defined as: Focused United States Government efforts to understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of United States Government interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power.[1]

Strategic communication management could be defined as the systematic planning and realization of information flow, communication, media development and image care in a long-term horizon. It conveys deliberate message(s) through the most suitable media to the designated audience(s) at the appropriate time to contribute to and achieve the desired long-term effect. Communication management is process creation. It has to bring three factors into balance: the message(s), the media channel(s) and the audience(s).[2]

An alternative view of Strategic Communication is offered by Steve Tatham of the UK Defence Academy. He argues that whilst it is desirable to bound and coordinate communications together – particularly from governments or the military – it should be regarded in a much more fundamental manner than simply process. The ‘informational effect’ should be placed at the very epi-centre of command and that all action must be calibrated against that effect – including the evaluation of 2nd and 3rd order effects. This is, he argues, proper Strategic Communication (communication singular – an abstract noun) whilst the actual process of communicating (which include Target Audience Analysis, evaluation of conduits, measurements of effect etc.) – is Strategic Communications (plural).[3]

In the August 2008 paper, DoD Principles of Strategic Communication, Robert T. Hastings, Jr., acting Assistant Secretary of Defense for Public Affairs, described strategic communication as «the synchronization of images, actions and words to achieve a desired effect.»

External links

Definitions and resources

“In this environment, the old adage that ‘A lie can be halfway around the world before the truth has its boots on’ becomes doubly true with today’s technologies…the longer it takes to put a strategic communication framework into place, the more we can be certain that the vacuum will be filled by the enemy and by news informers that most assuredly will not paint an accurate picture of what is actually taking place.”
— Donald H. Rumsfeld, Secretary of Defense, Remarks delivered at Harold Pratt House, New York, N.Y., Feb. 17, 2006

«…with electricity and automation, the technology of fragmented processes suddenly fused with the human dialogue and the need for over-all considerations of human unity. Men are suddenly nomadic gatherers of knowledge, nomadic as never before, informed as never before, free from fragmentary specialization as never before – but also involved in the total social process as never before, since with electricity we extend our central nervous system globally, instantly interrelating every human experience.»
— Marshall McLuhan, in Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man, 1964

  • 16 Mar 2010 report to Congress from the President regarding his administration’s interagency efforts in strategic communication
  • Pursuant to section 1055 of the Duncan Hunter National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2009 (Public Law 110-417), I am providing a report on my Administration’s comprehensive interagency strategy for public diplomacy and strategic communication of the Federal Government. [from 16 Mar 2010 text of letter on White House website]
  • White House Strategic Communications report to Congress (local copy), dated 16 Mar 2010, released 17 Mar 2010
    • Over the last few years, the term «strategic communication» has become increasingly popular. However, different uses of the term «strategic communication» have led to significant confusion. As a result, we believe it is necessary to begin this report by clarifying what we mean by strategic communication. By «strategic communication(s)» we refer to: (a) the synchronization of words and deeds and how they will be perceived by selected audiences, as well as (b) programs and activities deliberately aimed at communicating and engaging with intended audiences, including those implemented by public affairs, public diplomacy, and information operations professionals.
      • Synchronization. Coordinating words and deeds, including the active consideration of how our actions and policies will be interpreted by public audiences as an organic part of decision-making, is an important task. This understanding of strategic communication is driven by a recognition that what we do is often more important than what we say because actions have communicative value and send messages. Achieving strategic communication, in this sense, is a shared responsibility. It requires fostering a culture of communication that values this type of synchronization and encourages decision-makers to take the communicative value of actions into account during their decision-making. The most senior levels of government must advocate and implement a culture of communication that is reinforced through mechanisms and processes.
      • Deliberate Communication and Engagement. The United States Government has a wide range of programs and activities deliberately focused on understanding, engaging, informing, influencing, and communicating with people through public affairs, public diplomacy, information operations and other efforts.
  • Definition from 2006 QDR Strategic Communication Execution Roadmap
    • Focused United States Government processes and efforts to understand and engage key audiences to create, strengthen or preserve conditions favorable to advance national interests and objectives through the use of coordinated information, themes, plans, programs, and actions synchronized with other elements of national power.
  • Joint definition, from JP 5-0, Joint Operations Planning – 26 Dec 2006
    • strategic communication — Focused US Government efforts to understand and engage key audiences in order to create, strengthen, or preserve conditions favorable for the advancement of US Government interests, policies, and objectives through the use of coordinated programs, plans, themes, messages, and products synchronized with the actions of all instruments of national power.
  • Air Force definition, as of Jan 06, as verified by SAF/CM on 3 Nov 06
    • Strategic Communication: Informing and appropriately influencing key audiences by synchronizing and integrating communication efforts to deliver truthful, timely, accurate, and credible information
      • Strategic refers to source of information, message, messenger, audience, timeframe, and/or effect
      • Communication refers to both what you say and what you do
      • Requires focus on both internal and external communication efforts
      • Requires both peacetime and wartime processes and capabilities
  • see also:






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